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Sunday, February 12, 2012

ASPARTAME & LIVER CANCERS (peer-reviewed medical Journal article)


(My Letter to a Liver Cancer patient:  "A cursory search of our literature produced the following compelling examples of liver damage from the methanol and formaldehyde breakdown components of aspartame. If you were using aspartame prior to your liver cancer diagnosis then there is a very strong possibility your aspartame use played a part in the development of your particular cancer. See the evidence below. If you need more, we have it. Best - Mary Nash Stoddard/author Deadly Deception Story of Aspartame)"


J Pharm Pharmacol. 2000 May;52(5):547-52.

Protective effect of N-acetylcysteine on rat liver cell membrane during methanol intoxication.

Institute of Chemistry, University in Bialystok, Poland.

Abstract

Methanol is oxidized in-vivo to formaldehyde and then to formate, and these processes are accompanied by the generation of free radicals. We have studied the effect of N-acetylcysteine on liver cell membrane from rats intoxicated with methanol (3.0 g kg(-1)). Evaluation of the effect was achieved by several methods. Lipid peroxidation and surface charge density were measured. An ultrastructural study of the liver cells was undertaken. The concentration of marker enzymes of liver damage (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) in blood serum was measured. Methanol administration caused an increase in lipid peroxidation products (approximately 30%) as well as in surface charge density (approximately 60%). This might have resulted in the membrane liver cell damage visible under electron microscopy and a leak of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase into the blood (increase of approximately 70 and 50%, respectively). Ingestion of N-acetylcysteine with methanol partially prevented these methanol-induced changes. Compared with the control group, lipid peroxidation was increased by approximately 3% and surface charge density by approximately 30%. Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity increased by 9 and 8%, respectively, compared with the control group. The results suggested that N-acetylcysteine was an effective antioxidant in methanol intoxication. It may have efficacy in protecting free radical damage to liver cells following methanol intoxication.
PMID: 10864143 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
METHANOL (10% OF ASPARTAME MOLECULE)

Methanol is a type of alcohol not intended for human or animal consumption. It's common to find methanol in products like anti-freeze, canned heating sources like Sterno, varnish, windshield wiper fluid, paint thinner, and fuel additives. Methanol poisoning is extremely serious and can result in death within a few hours if not immediately treated.
As little as a couple of tablespoons (about 14-28 ml) of methanol can causemethanol poisoning in children. In adults, two ounces (56 ml) may causemethanol poisoning. Ingestion of methanol is cause for very grave concern and immediate hospital treatment.
Methanol poisoning has a number of symptoms. These include bizarre behavior, falling into a coma, extreme dizziness, severe headaches and seizures. Methanol poisoning can render a person temporarily blind, dilate the pupils and cause blurred vision. The digestive system starts to immediately reject methanol and symptoms may include severe stomach pain, nausea, and diarrhea. Methanol also disrupts liver and pancreatic function. Even with treatment, methanol poisoning can cause permanent liver damage.
Other symptoms in methanol poisoning are difficulty breathing, signs of lowoxygen levels through blue fingernails and lips, complete fatigue and cramps in the legs. These symptoms when taken together represent a medical emergency, and you should contact 911 or emergency services in your country immediately if you suspect methanol poisoning. You should not attempt to induce vomiting with syrup of ipecac unless you are instructed to do so by emergency services.
Treatment for methanol poisoning is fairly intensive. Many patients have a nasal-gastric tube inserted with activated charcoal, which helps "pump the stomach." Patients are observed for sharp declines in blood pressure, seizures, or stopping breathing. It is quite common for people to need dialysis, and most people are also given an antidote to methanol in the form of ethanol. As symptoms develop, other medications, like anticonvulsants may be needed. Many people require breathing support like a respirator.
If you do suspect methanol poisoning, it's important to take any suspected containers with methanol with you to the hospital. Lab analysis can roughly determine how much methanol a product contains which can help predict the degree of symptoms. You should not, however, waste time searching for methanol containers if you don't know what a person has consumed.
Most cases of methanol poisoning are accidental. Unfortunately, some alcoholics may actually consume methanol on purpose. This frequently causes irreversible blindness and can quite easily result in death. To prevent this, some methanol products have emetic properties added, which make a person immediately throw up after drinking them. This may not completely rid the body of methanol and hospital treatment is still necessary, even if a person immediately throws up after drinking methanol.



Material Safety Data Sheet

Methyl Alcohol, Reagent ACS, 99.8% (GC)


FORMALDEHYDE IS A BREAKDOWN PRODUCT OF METHANOL IN ASPARTAME:


Life Sci. 1998;63(5):337-49.

Formaldehyde derived from dietary aspartame binds to tissue components in vivo.

Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.

Abstract

Adult male rats were given an oral dose of 10 mg/kg aspartame 14C-labelled in the methanol carbon. At timed intervals of up to 6 hours, the radioactivity in plasma and several organs was investigated. Most of the radioactivity found (>98% in plasma, >75% in liver) was bound to protein. Label present in liver, plasma and kidney was in the range of 1-2% of total radioactivity administered per g or mL, changing little with time. Other organs (brown and white adipose tissues, muscle, brain, cornea and retina) contained levels of label in the range of 1/12 to 1/10th of that of liver. In all, the rat retained, 6 hours after administration about 5% of the label, half of it in the liver. The specific radioactivity of tissue protein, RNA and DNA was quite uniform. The protein label was concentrated in amino acids, different from methionine, and largely coincident with the result of protein exposure to labelled formaldehyde. DNA radioactivity was essentially in a single different adduct base, different from the normal bases present in DNA. The nature of the tissue label accumulated was, thus, a direct consequence of formaldehyde binding to tissue structures. The administration of labelled aspartame to a group of cirrhotic rats resulted in comparable label retention by tissue components, which suggests that liver function (or its defect) has little effect on formaldehyde formation from aspartame and binding to biological components. The chronic treatment of a series of rats with 200 mg/kg of non-labelled aspartame during 10 days resulted in the accumulation of even more label when given the radioactive bolus, suggesting that the amount of formaldehyde adducts coming from aspartame in tissue proteins and nucleic acids may be cumulative. It is concluded that aspartame consumption may constitute a hazard because of its contribution to the formation of formaldehyde adducts.
PMID: 9714421 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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http://www.aerias.org/DesktopModules/ArticleDetail.aspx?articleId=40

Formaldehyde: A Human Carcinogen

The International Agency for Research on Cancer, a World Health Organization panel of 26 scientists from 10 countries, has concluded that formaldehyde is a human carcinogen. Previously, the WHO has classified formaldehyde as a probable human carcinogen. After reviewing the latest epidemiologic studies, the panel determined that there is now sufficient evidence that formaldehyde causes nasopharyngeal cancer in humans, a rare cancer found in developed countries that impacts the back of the mouth and nose. The panel also found limited evidence for cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses and "strong but not sufficient evidence" for leukemia.
These findings are significant because the US Environmental Protection Agency has adopted a more less stringent assessment than the WHO.  The evidence reviewed by both the EPA and WHO included results from recent studies by the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA) and a study from England showing that exposure to formaldehyde might also cause leukemia in humans. The WHO panel noted that the scientific evidence has not yet determined how formaldehyde would cause cancer and called for more research. The EPA concluded that the studies were contradictory and not thoroughly reviewed.
Check back here for further updates. The section below reviews other health problems associated with formaldehyde.

Other Health Problems Associated With Formaldehyde

Health problems caused by formaldehyde can either be acute which occur immediately or within a few days of exposure or they can be chronic which are long-term health effects that might not show up for many years. Exposure to formaldehyde can result in:
Exposure to large amounts of formaldehyde may cause pulmonary edema (fluid build-up in the lungs) as well as damage the liver, kidneys, and the central nervous system.

Sensitivity among different people varies widely. Some people may become more sensitive to formaldehyde after an initial exposure. It is estimated that 10 percent to 20 percent of the US population have hyperreactive airways, which may make them more susceptible to irritant effects of formaldehyde. Children and adults have developed allergic reactions, including hives, from exposure to formaldehyde. Other persons have developed allergic reactions (such as allergic skin disease and hives) because of either direct skin contact with solutions of formaldehyde or by wearing permanent-press clothing containing formaldehyde.

Decreasing Exposure to FormaldehydeFormaldehyde: A Human Carcinogen

The International Agency for Research on Cancer, a World Health Organization panel of 26 scientists from 10 countries, has concluded that formaldehyde is a human carcinogen. Previously, the WHO has classified formaldehyde as a probable human carcinogen. After reviewing the latest epidemiologic studies, the panel determined that there is now sufficient evidence that formaldehyde causes nasopharyngeal cancer in humans, a rare cancer found in developed countries that impacts the back of the mouth and nose. The panel also found limited evidence for cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses and "strong but not sufficient evidence" for leukemia.
These findings are significant because the US Environmental Protection Agency has adopted a more less stringent assessment than the WHO.  The evidence reviewed by both the EPA and WHO included results from recent studies by the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA) and a study from England showing that exposure to formaldehyde might also cause leukemia in humans. The WHO panel noted that the scientific evidence has not yet determined how formaldehyde would cause cancer and called for more research. The EPA concluded that the studies were contradictory and not thoroughly reviewed.
Check back here for further updates. The section below reviews other health problems associated with formaldehyde.

Other Health Problems Associated With Formaldehyde

Health problems caused by formaldehyde can either be acute which occur immediately or within a few days of exposure or they can be chronic which are long-term health effects that might not show up for many years. Exposure to formaldehyde can result in:
Exposure to large amounts of formaldehyde may cause pulmonary edema (fluid build-up in the lungs) as well as damage the liver, kidneys, and the central nervous system.

Sensitivity among different people varies widely. Some people may become more sensitive to formaldehyde after an initial exposure. It is estimated that 10 percent to 20 percent of the US population have hyperreactive airways, which may make them more susceptible to irritant effects of formaldehyde. Children and adults have developed allergic reactions, including hives, from exposure to formaldehyde. Other persons have developed allergic reactions (such as allergic skin disease and hives) because of either direct skin contact with solutions of formaldehyde or by wearing permanent-press clothing containing formaldehyde.

Decreasing Exposure to Formaldehyde